Adjusted result before tax

Result before tax excluding restructuring costs and other exceptional costs, impairment charges and pension one-off.

Adjusted pre-tax margin

Adjusted result before tax divided by rolling year revenue

Capital base

Equity attributable to the shareholders of the Company plus subordinated debt.

Capital employed

Non-current assets plus net working capital and cash and cash equivalents.

Capital ratio

Capital base divided by total assets.

Carbon footprint

Total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused during a defined period, or across the total or part of the duration of a project. It is expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide equivalents CO2(e) emitted.

Cash flow before dividend

Net result attributable to the shareholders of the Company adjusted for depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges.

Community engagement

The process by which community benefit organisations and individuals build ongoing, permanent relationships with the purpose of applying a collective vision for the benefit of a (local) community.

Comprehensive income

The change in equity during a period resulting from transactions and other events, other than those changes resulting from transactions with shareholders in their capacity as shareholders

Current ratio

Current assets including assets held for sale divided by current liabilities including liabilities held for sale.

Earnings per share

Net result attributable to shareholders divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year.


Earnings before interest and tax

Emissions and waste

BAM solely reports CO2 emissions. Other greenhouse substances, such as CH4 (methane), N2O (nitrous oxide) are excluded as they are considered not material. BAM reports all waste leaving its sites and offices.

General Meeting

Annual General Meeting of Shareholders.


Greenhouse gases which have a global warming impact.


Health, safety and environment.


Incident frequency including all BAM site employees on own work and joint ventures.

Incident frequency (IF)

The total number of industrial accidents leading to absence from work per million hours worked on construction sites.

Industrial accident

An unintended occurrence during a period of paid work that results in physical injury or illness, including accidents that occur during business trips (during working hours, no commuting). In case of an accident involving multiple victims the number of accidents is considered equal to the number of victims.

Net debt

Long-term borrowings plus short-term borrowings less cash and cash equivalents.

Net working capital

Current assets (excluding cash and cash equivalents) minus current liabilities (excluding borrowings)

Return on capital employed (ROCE)

Rolling year EBIT divided by the average four-quarter rolling capital employed.

Return on equity (ROE)

Rolling year net result divided by the average four-quarter rolling invested equity.

Serious accident

An industrial accident that leads to the person involved being admitted to hospital for more than 24 hours or results in electrocution, amputation or fracture with and without lost time.


Equity attributable to shareholders of the Company divided by total assets.

Total shareholder return (TSR)

Metric used to compare the performance of companies in BAM’s peer group’s shares over time. The relative TSR position reflects the market perception of overall performance relative to the peer group.

Trade working capital

Net working capital excluding land and building rights, property development, PPP receivables, other financial assets, other receivables, taxes, derivative financial instruments, provisions, other liabilities and assets and liabilities held for sale

Trade working capital efficiency

The average four-quarters’ trade working capital divided by rolling year revenue.

In 2016, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) published a statement on the use of Alternative Performance Measures (APMs). An APM is a financial measure of historical or future financial performance, financial position or cash flows, other than a financial measure defined or specified in the applicable financial reporting framework. All APMs included in the list of definitions above and used by management, are included in this report to provide extra information to our stakeholders on the Group’s financial performance on top of information from the consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS. APMs defined above, or elsewhere in the report, are fully reconcilable with the notes to the consolidated financial statements.